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DIY mini course wine making at home

Making your own wine is not only fun, it is also an inexpensive way to build up a nice wine stock. By not using chemical preservatives such as sulphite, you can even make a product that is of a higher quality than many wines you can find in the store. A variety of recipes can be found here on this website. Besides nice to enjoy your own wine, it is also nice to give away a homemade bottle of wine as a gift. So make enough and provide your bottles with a nice label. Cheers!

What exactly is wine?

Wine is juice in which the sugars have been converted into alcohol through fermentation. Officially you can only call wine made from grapes 'wine', but we don't care!

If you want to make wine from fruit other than grapes, you will almost always have to make the juice suitable for fermentation. The yeast you add must be able to convert the fermentable sugars into alcohol and carbon dioxide.

    You take care of:
  • Sufficient fermentable sugars in the juice.
  • The correct acidity of the juice.
  • Sufficient nutrients for the yeast cells, add yeast food if necessary.

Yeast cells love tomato paste. Take a can of double concentrated tomato paste without salt (perfect nutrient) and add 1 or more teaspoons to your fermenter. Especially if the fermentation is difficult to get started.


Work cleanly!

Work cleanly, don't give bacteria a chance. Avoid contact of your wine-making with iron and with the vinegar fly. Use spoons and other tools made of stainless steel, wood or plastic. Use a sulfite solution to disinfect your equipment.

Boiling water can also be useful for disinfecting spoons and can replace sulphite.

Most commercial wines contain added sulfites. If you work clean, this is not necessary at all. So don't add it to your homemade wine.

So only use sulphite as a disinfectant for your bottles and tools. Not as a preservative because that's what the alcohol and any tannins present in the wine are for.

sulfite powder
Sulfite powder (campden) E224

What do you need:

  • Kitchen tools such as ladles, bottle brush, funnel, cooking pan and an accurate scale.
  • An open fermentation vessel. A sauerkraut barrel (white with red lid) is very useful for this. In this vessel you can first crush the pulp well before adding water with sugar. You can do that very well with a thick round stick that you have disinfected first.
  • Wine press. A simple wine press will suffice. Often the fruit to be pressed is first placed in a wine press bag. This bag, with fruits and all, then goes into the press. This will give you clearer juice.
  • Demijohns or otherwise and fitted with a sealing stopper with a water seal.
  • Food grade siphon and hoses.
  • Clean tea towels.
  • Thermometer can sometimes be usefull.
  • Hydrometer, with which you can measure the specific gravity of the must. In other words, you can see how much fermentable sugar is in the liquid. You can then not only calculate how much alcohol will be produced, you can also see from the meter whether your wine has really finished fermenting.
  • Sulphite powder (Campden or potassium pyrosulfite E224) for cleaning your bottles and tools.
  • Citric acid, you use in combination with sulphite and strengthens its effect.
  • Wine yeast.
wine making starter set
Buy a good starter kit, including a good book on winemaking

Wine yeast

Always use wine yeast and not baker's yeast. You can choose from many different types and order it online. You can use champagne yeast for cider, bordeaux yeast for red wine, and port yeast for port.
Always make a yeast starter first with a larger amount of juice. You make it a day in advance by filling a clean wine bottle with juice, a little sugar, yeast nutrient and yeast. Leave for a day with cotton wool in the top to stop vinegar flies. When the starter is bubbling well, pour the contents into your fermentation vessel with your juice or pulp. Once the pulp has left the wine press and the juice has arrived in the fermenter, we no longer speak of juice but of must. The must eventually turns into wine.


The hydrometer is a simple but indispensable specific gravity meter. You can use it to determine how much sugar there is in your fruit juice and how much alcohol that will yield when fermented. You can then calculate how much sugar you need to add to reach the desired alcohol percentage with complete fermentation.

You can also use the hydrometer to check whether the must has fully fermented. This is very important because bottling too early can be dangerous. These can explode during secondary fermentation in the bottle and nobody wants that.

If the hydromer indicates an SG of 1000 or even less, all the sugar has been converted to alcohol and you have made a dry wine.

A hydrometer is made of glass and is also called an aerometer, beer wort meter, density meter, densimeter, must meter or sugar meter.


Collecting fruit

Pick or collect enough fruit. Wash it before processing, if necessary.
You can also store fruit in the deep-freezer until you have enough of it collected. An advantage of this system is that all cells then freeze to pieces and that is good for the release of flavor later on. You can also use pectic enzymes to break down the cell walls of fruits (for example by rose hips).

You can let the squeezed skins of your fruit ferment for a few days (pulp fermentation) to give more flavor or color to your wine. This often also brings tannin (tannic acid) into the wine. This increases the shelf life, but also means that the wine has to lie longer before it is ready to drink.

Elderberries for making a perfect red wine

To work

You can make wine from all kinds of fruit, hard and soft. With hard fruits, such as rose hips, you will have to use pectic enzymes to break down the cells. This is necessary for color, flavor and aroma extraction. You can even make wine from potatoes. If you were to distill this potato wine, you would get 'poteen' or potato whiskey (Moonshine). On this page we stick to soft fruit such as elderberries, blackberries and raspberries.


  1. Crush the fruit to release the juices. They used to do that with their feet (in Portugal they still do), better is a thick wooden pestle and a clean barrel.
  2. Then squeeze out the juice. A wine press is of course ideal. Squeezing by hand in a clean tea towel and in a clean pan is easy, but often works too.
  3. The juice can be placed directly in a fermentation vessel that is sufficiently spacious so that there is still room above the fermenting wine for foam to develop.
  4. Add enough water and sugar (always dissolve the sugar in boiling water first and add it in steps if necessary)
  5. Add yeast (if necessary) and wine yeast that matches the fruit. If you make a yeast starter, you are assured that the fermentation will start quickly. This way you don't give any bad bacteria a chance.
  6. Fit your barrel with a water seal. Fermentation can start!
  7. If the first fermentation is very intense, you can only put a cotton ball in the top of your airlock at first to stop vinegar flies. When the fermentation has calmed down, you can fill the airlock with a little water.
  8. After a few months, transfer to another clean vessel or fermentation bottle without sucking the dead yeast from the bottom. Make sure there is as little air as possible above the wine this time and let the wine ferment further (we call this the second fermentation)

You can use the moment of siphoning for the 2nd fermentation to check the acidity of your wine in the making. If you follow the given recipes you can also skip this check.

Almost history
Nice huh?

Pulp fermentation

With pulp fermentation you first let the crushed fruit ferment for a few days before the mass goes into the press. This brings color and tannin to the wine. Red wine made from grapes therefore contains six times as much tannin as white wine.

The bitter tannin increases the shelf life, but also has a major influence on the taste. A wine with a lot of tannin often has to sit for years until it has become drinkable due to taste development.

  1. Crush the fruit so that the juices are released and pour the whole mass into an open container, for example a large white plastic bucket that is suitable for food.
  2. Add enough water and sugar (always dissolve the sugar in boiling water first and add it in steps)
  3. Add vitamins (if necessary) and a wine yeast that matches the fruit.
  4. Cover the vessel tightly with a clean tea towel. String around it to be sure because no vinegar flies can get to it.
  5. Stir twice a day with a wooden ladle or stainless steel spatula and push floating pulp back into the juice to prevent spoilage.
  6. After the pulp fermentation, you can press the mass and let it ferment in a demijohn or vessel with a water seal. In other words: 'fermentation in barrel'
    Sieve the liquid through a funnel with a clean cloth into a fermentation bottle with a water seal. A cheesecloth is ideal for this purpose, a tea towel will work too. If you are lucky enough to have a wine press, you can entrust the pulp to it to extract the last bits of wine.
pulp fermentation
Pulp fermentation of elderberries
fermenting pulp
Press down on the pulp twice a day

Fermentation in a barrel

This first fermentation in barrel (or bottle), which you have closed with a water seal, can get quite intense. So intense, in fact, that the water is pushed out of your water seal. Then temporarily close the airlock with a piece of cotton wool until the fermentation is calmer. Also make sure that there is enough space above the wine, should foam arise.

A glass transparent fermentation bottle (carboy) is ideal because you can follow the entire process well. Nowadays there are also good plastic alternatives available. Always put the bottle in a dark place or cover it so that no light can reach your wine. Because you don't want your wine to lose color.

Over time, you will see a thickening white layer of dead yeast cells on the bottom of your fermentation bottle. These yeast cells eventually succumbed to the alcohol they produced.

To prevent this dead yeast from giving your wine a yeasty taste, transfer the wine to a new clean bottle after a few months. Try to prevent as much as possible yeast cells from the bottom to the new bottle.

Now make sure there is as little air as possible above the wine and let the wine ferment further.

You can use a moment of siphoning to check the acidity of your wine in the making. There are special meters for that. If you follow the given recipes you can also skip this.

fermentation bottle
Enjoy watching the fermentation proces. Isn't it beautiful?


Over time, your wine will become clear. A period of lower temperature accelerates this clarification process. When your wine is fully fermented and completely clear, you can start bottling.

However, many winemakers transfer their fermented wine a third time to a clean barrel that is put away for a few weeks in a cold environment. At a cold temperature (the colder, the better) the wine becomes super clear. Those who have a cellar - with a cold concrete floor - can count themselves lucky.

Then comes the moment of bottling. But..... bubbles of carbon dioxide sometimes remain in the fermented wine, with the result that we experience it as a sparkling wine. If that is not the intention, you can first degas the wine before you put it in the bottle.

heldere wijn

Bottling & Bottle finishing

You first rinse the bottles with a sulfite solution. Then drain them upside down. There are handy draining racks for sale for this purpose. Although some booklets advises different, directly after the sulfite cleaning we rinse the bottles with clean water from the tap because we don't want sulfite residues in the bottle. We've never had spoiled wine.

Of course we always use new corks, which we disinfect by immersing them in hot water for some time. This also makes the cork more resilient and easier to squeeze into the bottle. Once the bottles are corked, we leave them upright for one to two days to allow the cork to recover. We are talking about old-fashioned natural corks. Of course you can also use synthetic corks.

Fill the bottles with your siphon and don't leave too much space under the cork. The less oxygen, the better. Handy devices for pressing the cork are available for little money.

After the bottles are filled and corked, you can store them lying down in a cool place to let your wine settle until ready to drink.

Of course you provide the bottles with a nice label and a shrink cap to cover the cork. A red capsule for red wine, a white capsule for white wine and a gold capsule for sparkling wine such as cider. You can unleash your creativity on the label. In any case, state what you made it from, the year and the alcohol content.

Clean bottles, clean corks and an affordable corker
wine bottle drying rack
Handy wine bottle drying rack
bottling wine
Siphon and semi-pro corker

Concepts & Remedies


The ideal acidity is 3.5 pH, which you can easily measure with pH paper or a measurement with titration liquid.
  • very low acidity:
    Fig, Grain, Rosehip
  • low acidity:
    Elderberry, Pear, Pineapple, Dried Fruit
  • moderate acidity:
    Apple, Apricot, Cherry, Plum, Grape, Peach, Orange
  • high acidity:
    Blueberry, Blackberry, Gooseberry, Leisterberry, Strawberry
  • very high acidity:
    Black Currant, Lemon, Rhubarb


There are different types of alcohol. The drinkable alcohol (ethyl alcohol) is created in the wine through the fermentation process. Under certain circumstances, toxic methyl alcohol can enter the wine, for example if the wine has been stored for months on pulp that contains many woody parts. Some methyl can also end up in the wine from red fruit, but this amount is so small that you don't have to worry about it. Only if you would distill that wine would you first remove that harmful methyl to prevent poisoning due to a too high concentration.
Methanol already evaporates at 65°C, Ethyl alcohol only evaporates at 78°C.

Alcohol percentage

This is the amount of alcohol in the wine. The highest achievable with normal wine yeast is 16-17% measured in volume alcohol. At a higher percentage, the yeast dies and the remaining sugar cannot be converted into alcohol, resulting in a sweet wine, often even too sweet. means is available to correct a wine that is too sweet.

Alcohol meter

With this glass measuring tube you can measure the alcohol percentage. Pour the (dry) wine at the top of the chalice, wait until the wine starts to drip from the bottom, turn the alcohol meter upside down and place it on the counter. You can read the percentage in the capillary tube.
You first dilute a sweet wine with an equal amount of water. You multiply the measurement result by two.
After use, it is important that you flush the meter thoroughly.


Cider preparation

Don't use too much sugar, 2 kg per 10 liters of juice, and let the wine ferment completely. Then transfer at least 2x and then let the wine mature for 6 months. When bottling, add 1 level teaspoon of sugar and some champagne yeast to each bottle. Use the right bottles, with champagne caps and baskets. 1% sugar is the maximum; it is recommended to use a hydrometer.

Citric acid

For a good and fast fermentation, the acidity is very important. Use citric acid rather than lemons. 4 grams of citric acid is equal to 1 lemon. You can also use citric acid together with the cleaning agent sulfite to initiate its effect. Because only by adding 1 teaspoon of citric acid per 1 liter of sulfite solution you get the necessary sulfur oxide.


This is a matter of patience. It is often sufficient to move the wine to a room with a lower temperature. Sometimes adding a similar type of wine, for example from a different year, from a different barrel or an already clarified wine, helps. But normally the wine clears itself. If that doesn't happen, you can also add a clarifying agent, such as bentonite clay or egg white.

Cloudy wine

Cloudy wine can be caused by pectin, starch, proteins or combinations thereof.
  • You break down pectin with pectinol. Start at 21-27°C for 4 hours, shaking occasionally. Then leave to stand at 16-21°C.
  • You break down starch with amylase, especially for wine made from grains, bananas or carrots. The starch is converted into sugar so that the wine can ferment again.
  • You use bentonite for proteins. This excellent clearing agent should be prepared 24 hours before use. Shake well, then add and siphon off after 1 month (definitely not sooner).


The weight in grams of 1000 cm³ (1 litre) of liquid. The density of water = 1000. (ρ = m/V)


Before bottling, pour a glass of wine and let it sit for 24 hours. If the wine has discolored, dissolve 10 grams of ascorbic acid in 1 liter of wine, and add 25 ml of that mixture per 5 liters of wine to the wine to be bottled.


Dregs consist of a deposit of yeast cells and other solids formed during fermentation. After siphoning and clearing, discard the dregs.

Dried fruit

You can also make wine from dried fruit. 1 Kg of dried fruit corresponds to about 1 kg of fresh fruit. Pour boiling water over the fruit, let it soak and chop finely. Dried fruits have a low acidity, so it is necessary to add acid. See: 'lactic acid'.

(too) Dry wine

If your wine has become too dry (i.e. sour), you can add some glycerin to sweeten it without the risk of secondary fermentation.
You take half a liter of the wine, add a teaspoon of glycerin and taste. Possibly a few more teaspoons until the taste is to your liking, so that you can easily calculate how much glycerine is needed for the total amount of wine.
Attention: before you know it, the wine will be too sweet.


Enzymes are proteinaceous substances from nature that promote certain chemical processes without changing themselves. Each enzyme has a different ideal working temperature and has different requirements to do its job optimally.


These are volatile substances, consisting of compounds of alcohol and acids.


The first fermentation takes place on the pulp, in a bucket covered with a clean tea towel. Watch out for insects! Stir daily. The sugar, pectinol, yeast nutrient salt, etc. are already contained in this pulp mass. Transfer after a maximum of 5 days and place in a clean vessel under a water seal.

Fermentation stops early

Normally, fermentation stops when all the sugar has fermented or when the maximum alcohol percentage has been reached. If the fermentation stops earlier, this can be due to the following reasons.
  • The temperature is too high or too low.
    Solution: Adjust the temperature.
  • An excess of sugar.
    Solution: Dilute the wine mass with water.
  • Too little yeast nutrition.
    Solution: Add Vitamin B1.
  • Too much or too little carbon dioxide.
    Solution: shake if there is too much carbon dioxide. If there is not enough carbon dioxide, you pour the wine from above into a bucket - the wine should splash - and then immediately back into the fermentation bottle.

If the problem is not solved, make half a liter of yeast starter. If it ferments well, add half a liter of the wine. Once this mixture ferments well, add a liter of wine. Double the amount of wine to be added each time.


If you swirl wine in a glass, you can sometimes detect the presence of glycerin, if drops of the wine stick to your glass, so to speak. The wine weeps, they say. Glycerin softens the wine.


With this you can measure the specific gravity of a liquid, expressed in the unit s.g.
The scale usually runs from 985 to about 1130, you use it at a temperature of 15°C. Read the meter at eye level.
Using the s.g. you can determine the sugar content and use that information to calculate how much alcohol can be obtained during fermentation.
Now you can also calculate how much sugar you will have to add to the must to achieve a higher alcohol content.

Water has a specific gravity of 1000. If you were to dissolve sugar in it, you would read a higher value, for example 1040. According to the table below, this must produces 5% alcohol when fermented. For a long-lasting wine you need a higher alcohol percentage and therefore also a proportionally higher sugar content of the must.

Suppose you want to make 10 liters of wine with an alcohol content of 16%, then according to the table you have an s.g. of 1120, or a sugar content of 3150 grams per 10 litres.
However, the must has a s.g. of 1040, or a sugar content of 1070 grams per 10 liters.
So you still need to add 2080 grams of sugar to the 10 liters of must.

table for the hydrometer

s.w. max.
of sugar
per 10ltr




























temperature correction

in °C

10 -0,6

15 +0

20 +0,9

25 +2

30 +3,4

35 +5

40 +6,8
If you want to make a wine with a very high alcohol content, make sure that the yeast you want to use can handle it!
Checking the sugar content

Lactic acid

Lactic acid comes from sour milk. During the last phase of the fermentation, the so-called malic acid-lactic acid fermentation, lactic acid is formed. This is an important flavor enhancer in your wine.
Make your wine from e.g. dried fruits, then you will need to add some lactic acid (1 teaspoon per 5 liters)


Make a logbook and write down exactly how you made your wine, how many and which ingredients you added and when. If you make a top wine that is worth repeating, you will understand the usefulness of this.


Must is unfermented fruit juice or fruit pulp.


Pectin is found in most fruits. When making jam, it causes gelling, or thickening. In wine, we therefore have no interest in pectin, which is why we cook as little as possible, so that the enzymes can break down the pectin.

Pectin haze

A pectin haze usually occurs when the fruits are cooked too long.


Pectinol is a natural enzyme that breaks down the pectin present in the fruit. Pectin acts as a binder (think of jam) and would therefore provide a "thicker" and not clear wine. Transferring is also difficult. For some fruits, such as apples and citrus fruits, pectinol is indispensable, but it is always recommended. Pectinol ensures a better juice yield (60-70%!) and a better taste and colour.
You can add the pectinol to the cooled must 24 hours before the first fermentation. You can also do it later, during the fermentation process, or even afterwards, if your wine is cloudy.

Pulp fermentation

We turn fruits into a pulp by pounding or grinding. We let this pulp ferment for a certain period of time to extract as much flavor and color as possible.


These are dried grapes and are sometimes added to fruits for better fermentation. Always use unsulphured raisins.


After clarification, the wine has to age for a while. The wine becomes softer in taste and colour, the bouquet begins to develop.

Rohament P

Comparable to pectinol, 2 grams for 3 kilograms of fruit.


Precipitation of substances at the bottom of the bottle.


Always use a siphon hose that is intended for food, especially for the wine and beer maker. (Soft and transparent, with a rigid part, pull-out, and with tap and anti-sediment cap.) Do not shake again the day before siphoning. Siphon with care, calmness and patience. After transferring, top up with boiled, cooled water to which you may have added sugar. Apple juice or grape juice is also an option.
After the 2nd siphon, do not add any more sugar, but supplement with wine or alcohol, or boiled, cooled water.
The time of the first siphon cannot be specified, except for those from "open fermentation" to "bottle fermentation". This must always take place within 5 days.

Starch haze

A starch haze is usually caused by using fruit that is too unripe; see: 'cloudy wine'.


Better too little than too much. A rule of thumb is: 3 kilos of sugar gives 10 liters of moderately sweet wine. Don't forget to count the sugars present in the fruit! 1 kilogram of raisins, for example, already contains 640 grams of sugar. Add the sugar gradually. For example: first 50%, then 25%, and subdivide the last 25% again. The sugar must always be added dissolved: boil and allow to cool. Undissolved sugar inhibits fermentation.

A few rules of thumb:
  • light wine: 3 kg fruit 2 kg sugar
  • medium wine: 4 kg fruit 2 kg sugar
  • heavy wine: 6 kg of fruit 3 kg of sugar
You can make 10 liters of wine from 15 kg of grapes and for that you need about 2.5 kg of sugar.


You can clean the materials used with a sulfite solution: bottles, funnels, airlocks, etc. But you can also add a sulfite solution to the pulp. Sometimes it is absolutely necessary to add sulphite to the pulp; this has nothing to do with the so-called “sulfite headache wine”. The sulphite has completely disappeared after the fermentation process.

Migraine wine is made by adding sulphite AFTER the fermentation process, to extend the shelf life of the wine or because you don't want to bottle it. Of course this is very unwise.

Always add 1 teaspoon of citric acid per liter of solution to a sulfite solution, because this is the only way to obtain the required sulfur dioxide.

(too) Sweet wine

Too sweet wine can be mixed with a dry wine. Wine that is too sweet often also has an alcohol percentage that is too low. For a renewed fermentation, see 'fermentation stopped'.

Tannic acid

Tannic acid, or tannin, is an important component of wine. Too little tannin gives a wine without body, too much tannin gives a sour wine with a bitter taste. In addition to an important influence on the taste, tannin also has preservative properties.

A wine with a high tannin content can therefore be stored for a long to very long time. But because of the bitter tannin it will also take longer before the wine is ready to drink due to taste evolution and therefore tastes good.

This taste evolution can lead to surprisingly good wines. If you ever want to make a large amount of wine, it might be interesting to let part of your must ferment on the pulp a little longer than the recipe prescribes. This increases the tannin content and you have laid the foundation for a wine to keep.

Elderberries contain a lot of tannin and are therefore extremely suitable for a storage wine. Tannin precipitates over the years. Due to the associated taste evolution, some Bordeaux wines are only at their best after 20 years.

If you make a wine from flowers or grain, you should always add tannic acid for a bit of body. One teaspoon per tannic acid per 5 liters of must is a good ratio.


To ensure that the fermentation process runs smoothly, an initial temperature of 20-26°C is ideal. Yeast dies above 38°C.
The second fermentation should take place at about 16°C.


Determine the acidity using a titration liquid that shows a color change. You can also do this with ph paper.


Disinfects and cleans in 1 treatment; ideal for airlocks, funnels and buckets. Not suitable for adding to wine.

Vinegar formation

If your wine sours, the cause is usually that the must or wine has come into contact with the outside air or the vinegar fly. You now have a hobby if vinegar brewer, because you can use your homemade wine vinegar excellently in the kitchen.

Water seal

Provides a seal on the fermentation vessel, allowing carbon dioxide to escape and keeping out oxygen and insects.

Wine press

You really don't have to buy a wine press right away, but it is quite useful to increase your juice yield considerably. In addition, you gain extra flavorings and colorings.

If you ever buy a wine press, make sure you buy a good one without exposed iron parts that your wine could come into contact with.
Otherwise your wine is at risk of iron breakage, a disease that will absolutely spoil your wine.
Stainless steel and clean wood are definitely good materials and you can possibly build it yourself. It is useful if your press can squeeze enough fruit in one go.

Do not squeeze red fruit, such as elderberries, to an extreme, to avoid adding too much of the bitter tannin to your juice.

Nice thing to have if you make bigger proportions


This is a one-celled plant, belonging to the fungi. There are many different yeast varieties, each with different properties, including baker's yeast, beer yeast and wine yeast.
Yeast produces enzymes that split sucrose into glucose and fructose.
There are different types of wine yeast for sale, such as: Port, Bordeaux , Riesling, Rôhne, Champagne and Saké.
Wine yeast provides an alcohol content of up to about 14% maximum, plus a firm sediment layer, which is easy to clarify and transfer.
In addition to wine yeast and brewer's yeast, there is still fuel yeast which the latter can reach an alcohol content of more than 20%.

Yeast nutrition

Important aid for good and vigorous fermentation; compare it to manure for the garden. Especially if you add vitamin B, yeast nutrition guarantees a fiercer fermentation. If you use pure, undiluted fruit juice, yeast nutrient salt is not necessary.

Yeast starter

There are several recipes for making a yeast starter. Make the yeast starter below 48 hours in advance:

  • Mix 200 ml orange juice with 100 ml lemon juice.
  • Sieve the mixture and add 200 ml of cold water, 100 grams of sugar, yeast nutrient salt, wine yeast and possibly vitamin B1.
  • Put away in, for example, a wide-mouthed milk bottle at 20 to 25 °C and fitted with a wad of cotton wool in the neck opening.

Yeast Stop

Sodium Benzoate ends a 'perpetual' fermentation process. Listed here for completeness but normally you don't need it.

granular yeast kitzinger port
Yeast for Port wine

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